Commentary - UVEI - Upper Valley Educators Institute

  • #ObserveMe

    Matt McCormick Opens This Year's Spotlight Classroom:

    This year, UVEI is shining a spotlight on a teacher whose instructional practices are particularly worth observing. At UVEI’s annual Innovations in Education Forum, we announced our 2017-2018 spotlight classroom: Matt McCormick’s 7th grade Humanities class at Woodstock Middle School in Woodstock Vermont.

    Matt is blowing the doors to his classroom wide open (answering the #ObserveMe call to action) for anyone to visit and observe. However, it's a symbiotic relationship: Matt wants feedback. Teaching can be a lonely profession; teachers don't usually get a lot of feedback from fellow practitioners. So if you choose to participate,email him (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for good times to observe.

    At the Innovations in Education Forum, I was able to interview Matt to find out more about his practice. What motivates him to improve, and what surprises him about middle school-aged kids?

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  • Admissions Season

    Spring is our admissions season at UVEI, and during this time I get a glimpse into the lives of educators. Just like the new growth I see outdoors, our applicants fascinate me. They encourage me. They are a hopeful new beginning.

    Here at the admissions desk, I receive and file each piece of each application to our UVEI and UVGSE programs -- resumes of educational interests and experience; essays describing risk-taking and determination; letters of recommendation from supervisors, colleagues, professors, even from students; notes from an interview with our program faculty. The pieces of an application fit together so that I start to know each applicant even without meeting them in person.

    The next step after the application and interview is the admissions review, when the Admissions Committee convenes to discuss our applicants. Not just the strengths and weaknesses they will bring to the program, but also how they will best be served. What type of mentor and placement will help them grow? What additional supports might they need? Are there any special prerequisites that should be met before participation? The admissions decision that results is personalized for each applicant -- a personalization that carries through during the entire time of a their participation with us, and even beyond that.

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  • Jim Firmi and Andy Mellow

    Balancing Terror and Exhilaration

    When asked about taking risks as an educator, Jim Firmin understands that both terror and exhilaration come in equal parts and that positive results come from holding the tension between the two.

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  • Being Metacognitive about Metacognition

    I spend a lot of time talking with teachers about what they care about and want to improve on. I also spend a lot of time in classrooms--both with interns and veteran teachers--seeing what’s important in their practice and what they’re working on. And in the last few years I’ve noticed that across grade levels, geography, school contexts, and stage of career, teachers are converging on the importance of helping students develop their agency as learners, and they are attempting to use instructional strategies that promote this. (In this case, agency refers to the knowledge and authority students have to take action in their learning.)

    These teachers see both the importance and need for students to take ownership of their learning, to be self-determined and self-directed, and to learn how to learn. In essence, they want students to act metacognitively throughout their learning. Metacognition, broadly defined, is “thinking about our thinking.” Being metacognitive means asking the right questions when we’re solving a problem, reflecting on what we know and don’t know, monitoring our learning throughout a process (such as how we’re comprehending text), setting realistic goals, planning a design process, and evaluating our performance and learning. It also involves knowing the appropriate times and places to use different strategies to learn effectively (a component of agency).

    It’s quite easy to talk about metacognition, and it’s equally difficult to help students become metacognitive! That’s because students’ metacognitive capacities develop over time, and, more importantly, they need to be catalyzed and nurtured by educational environments. In other words, we can’t assume that students’ metacognitive skills will just appear when the bell rings, the educational waves washing over them. On the contrary, as students age, their brains are increasingly receptive to more cognitively challenging tasks and more metacognitive thinking. However, if they’re not challenged, they won’t develop. Although the process of learning language is different, the concept is the same--use it or never develop it.

    This means that classroom tasks and environments need to sufficiently promote students’ metacognitive development. Here we often see a mismatch. A classroom poster might hang that encourages students to self-assess their learning, to explain their thinking, and to plan before problem solving, but unless students are engaged in solving actual problems, pressed to explain their thinking through thoughtful and guided questioning, and have practice with tools that help them self-assess, it’s unlikely that their metacognition will develop in intended ways.

    Teachers are increasingly aware of the need for this match. Just this fall, I observed first graders self-assessing their understanding of the daily mathematical learning targets at the end of a lesson. They were challenged to think about how well they could use a counting frame for single digit addition. Almost all students put their Popsicle stick into the “I can teach it to others” jar, so perhaps there is an overestimation of their understanding (which is common in young children), but the full potential of this practice can’t be realized in one lesson. Over time, practice--and feedback--with self-assessment creates for these young learners a habit of reflection, of turning their mind’s eye on itself, of generating knowledge about their knowledge. Hey, that’s metacognition!

    But effective metacognition is more than habits--it’s an awareness of these habits. Otherwise, without awareness, we have little agency in use of this knowledge. Teachers tell us to self-assess, and we self-assess. Teachers tell us to use a graphic organizer to plan our essay, and we follow directions. Do we know why? Do we know how we might transfer these skills to other settings? Perhaps we’re being metacognitive about our learning in that task, but an awareness of the metacognitive skills we’re applying helps us be metacognitive about our potential as lifelong learners. A true hallmark of agency.

    For more information on the research on and practice of metacognition, please read Chapter 2: Key Findings in How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice by Donovan et al. (1999)

    Commentary by Christopher Ward, PhD

    Chris is UVEI’s Graduate Studies Coordinator and member of the Program Faculty.  Along with colleagues at the University of Washington and Vanderbilt University, he received the Best Article of the Year award for the article, Situated Motivation, published in the journal, Educational Psychologist.  For more, see

    Read more about Chris.



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  • Cool Things in School Updated

    It’s 8:45 on a quintessential New England fall morning, and I look around our seminar room at the faces of our fifteen newly-inducted teacher interns. Some are sipping coffee, others are tapping on their laptops, while many others are visiting and catching up with colleagues they haven’t seen in a week. It’s only September, but their faces and body language are not as sunny as the weather. I can tell that already some of the expected anxiety and uncertainty has started to bubble up. After all, our interns have been thrust into an unfamiliar school, a new classroom, and many have started teaching lessons even though they’re still figuring out just exactly what it means to be a teacher.  I’m sure I’ll be having a few empathetic conversations later today.

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  • Developing Teachers' Habits of Reflection


    The practice of reflection is about educators thinking carefully and deeply about practice, and its   purpose is to increase understanding of teaching through analysis and interpretation. At UVEI, reflection is especially important. In UVEI programs, educators learn first and foremost from experience, meaning that the primary driver of growth is real work with students in classroom settings. In this type of model, analyzing and reflecting on those experiences is critical. In fact, John Dewey, a pioneer in thinking about both learning from experience and the importance of reflection, argued that there is no learning from experience absent thoughtful reflection.

    Together with colleagues from University of New Hampshire, Plymouth State University, and Saint Anselm College, I just completed a study on teacher reflection. We examined what types of reflection pre-service and first year teachers engage in, and how that affects their work. Research suggests that certain types of reflection are more likely to lead to improvement. Specifically, the most impactful forms of reflection incorporate:

    • Careful analysis of practice,

    • Use of research-based frameworks for informing and examining practice,

    • Metacognitive thinking about one’s own goals, self-assessing, and monitoring progress, and

    • Critically examining one’s own assumptions, and distinguishing actionable space from systemic problems.

    In our study, we found that common assessments used across programs in New Hampshire tend to emphasize certain types of reflection (analysis of practice and use of research-based frameworks), and that first year teachers most commonly engage in direct analysis of practice. While this is promising in some ways -- suggesting that programs are developing some important habits of reflection -- it also indicates that it is extra important for programs to find ways to develop teachers’ habits of reflection in more sophisticated ways.

    At UVEI, we work to incorporate reflection in all aspects of the program. Written performance assessments challenge candidates to explain, justify, and critique their own work. Our model of instructional coaching includes guided conferences that engage candidates in both analysis of teaching and in developing candidates’ self-awareness about their improvement process. Our emphasis on inquiry and collegial dialogue as the core of seminar meetings provides candidates with ongoing opportunities to critically examine both their own and their peers’ work. Finally, a regular process of faculty and self-assessment on progress towards specific standards, goal setting, and ongoing feedback support our candidates’ ability to monitor their own progress and steer their own growth.

    Commentary by Page Tompkins

    Page Tompkins is UVEI's Executive Director and Chief Academic Officer.  He can be followed on Twitter @pagetompkins.

    Other commentaries by Page can be found at:




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  • Differentiation: How and Why it Works

    There have always been buzzwords in education-- perhaps now more than ever. For example, current phrases like personalized learning plans, proficiency-based learning and flexible pathways are hot faculty meeting topics in Vermont. But are they just buzz? Or do these concepts have staying-power?  

    If we view these topics through the lens of differentiated instruction -- something that educators and researchers agree improves student outcomes -- then it’s more than likely these buzzwords could be with us for awhile.

    Personalized learning plans, proficiency-based learning and flexible pathways all stem from the notion that students are unique and learn in ways that are particular to them. Differentiating learning means educators build on the unique experiences and understandings of each student, and continuously tailor learning opportunities for every student.  

    When educators focus on differentiated instruction, they can feel passionate, excited and overwhelmed. An example is Laurel, a middle grades reading teacher at Kurn Hattin Homes, a non-profit located in Westminster, Vermont, which serves as a charitable home and school for children affected by tragedy, social or economic hardship or family disruption.  She shares, “I believe in differentiated instruction and its benefits to my students. I know I can do it. It takes planning and implementation time. Students have to get used to it. But, it’s worth it in the long run.”

    Common questions educators may ask include, “How can I adapt materials I use for the whole class to use with smaller groups without overwhelming myself with planning?” and “How do I effectively implement differentiation in the classroom?”

    Teaching to learner differences involves new ways of thinking about five essential elements:

    • Pre-assessment: Responding to learner differences requires teachers to be informed as much as possible by detailed knowledge about students' specific strengths, needs, and areas for growth across multiple dimensions including students’ academic literacies, students’ motivations and orientations to learning, differences in how students learn, and personal characteristics.

    • Assessment: Providing students with multiple ways to demonstrate knowledge and skills providing both teachers and students with more accurate understanding of students' knowledge and skills.

    • Content: Making content accessible by modifying and clarifying content in response to a student's readiness level, interests, or learning profile (see types of pre-assessment).

    • Instruction (including both engagement & monitoring learning during instruction): Providing students with multiple ways to access content improves learning and monitoring students’ progress to provide information to the teacher about how they might adjust instruction and to provide high quality feedback to the student.

    • Environments: A classroom structured to respond to student differences should support, and is supported by, an evolving community of learners that is supportive, strengths based, and growth oriented.

    Sometimes educators have the impression that differentiating instruction means simply allowing students to show what they know through different pathways. But as the information above illustrates, differentiating is more than just giving kids the opportunity to demonstrate understanding in different ways.

    If differentiated instruction is an approach broadly supported in the research literature, why is it still not widely and effectively used? There is evidence to suggest that most teachers feel ill prepared to teach students with diverse learning needs.

    To put it simply: Differentiation for the whole class and individuals is hard.

    We welcome your stories, strategie, and challenges. Post a comment on our Facebook page.

    Commentary by Becky Wipfler

    Becky Wipfler is UVEI’s Elementary Education Coordinator.  Other commentaries by Becky, can be found at, and

    You can follow her on Twitter @UVEIwipfler


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  • Engaging in Deliberate Practice

    Ever wonder what makes some people really good at what they do? How did Michael Jordan become the greatest basketball player of all time? What did it take for Toni Morrison to write a Pulitzer Prize winning novel? Although Hollywood might have us believe that great teachers are great because of their innate talent (an inspired teacher stands on his desk and all students suddenly care about poetry!), in reality, it’s likely that people who are really good at things practice, practice, practice. And then they practice some more. In fact, research indicates that frequent and mindful engagement in teaching techniques, prompting cycles of teaching – evaluation – revision, is the main factor contributing to increasing expertise as a teacher. In other words, deliberate practice may make all the difference.  

    What is deliberate practice?  Deliberate practice is a highly structured activity engaged in the specific goal of improving performance.  Extended deliberate practice is a key component for attaining expert performance and is thought to be more important than the role of innate ability in development towards expertise.

    At UVEI, our whole approach is focused on helping educators learn from experience. As a main focus this year, UVEI’s faculty is asking how we can encourage teachers to engage in more deliberate practice. Coaching, one-on-one support and feedback are already core components of our programs.  The hard question is: how do we encourage working teachers (a busy group) to keep intentionally practicing and reflecting on new techniques without loading up on tasks and busy work?  

    That is the question that will occupy our attention this year, and we look forward to sharing what we learn with the education community!

    Commentary by Page Tompkins

    Page Tompkins is UVEI's Executive Director and Chief Academic Officer.  He can be followed on Twitter @pagetompkins.

    Other commentaries by Page can be found at:


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  • Four Key Goals of Participation Strategies

    My job has allowed me the time and space for reflection, the opportunity to see lots of instruction, and to learn a lot about teaching. Among the many aspects of my own practice I’ve rethought, participation strategies are my a-ha! breakthrough.

    It’s not easy to rethink existing teaching practices, let alone try or invent new ones. According to Edwin Land, an American scientist, inventor and co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation, innovation happens when there’s a “sudden cessation of stupidity.” That’s a difficult concept to accept. Who wants to believe that one’s thinking was ever stupid?  

    But, if I’m honestly reflecting, I’m afraid that I utilized only a few participation strategies in my own instruction-- and, boy, does that seem stupid now!

    There’s an amazing difference between the classroom in which a few students are wearing out rotator cuffs by waving hands in the air while the rest of the room sits silently, and a classroom where every student is engaged. In fact, according to a 2014 Grant Wiggins blog post, students are sitting passively and rarely speaking during most of their day.

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  • From Both Sides of the Table

    UVEI Principal interns participated in a mock interview experience that attempted to replicate what a principal might face when interviewing for a first principalship. Twenty education professionals from Vermont and New Hampshire came together to offer interns a look at how an interview committee develops a candidate profile and interview questions, along with the ethical practices and considerations a committee must attend to. The committee was comprised of an assistant superintendent, principals, assistant principals, teachers, paraeducators, school board members, students, and community members. Interns received feedback (think formative assessment) on their interview in order to assist the interns in honing their interviewing skills.

    This unique model of supporting aspiring principals allows for a view from both sides of the table -- as the person leading the interviews and the person being interviewed. Through these lenses and in real time, principals interns were able to consider the complex world of interviewing.

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  • Get Smart!

    “Smart is not something you just are; smart is something you can get.”

    Dr. Jeff Howard

    I’d been teaching for about five years when I was fortunate enough to meet Dr. Jeff Howard from Harvard’s Efficacy Institute. He introduced me to a number of new concepts: The Innate Ability Paradigm, Growth Mindset, Mobilized Effort, Coaching, Tenacious Engagement, and Focused Feedback. These were all fairly new ideas in education at the time, but now they are common concepts for most educators. After the time I spent with Dr. Howard, something changed in my belief system and my work as a teacher.

    I defined growth mindset for my students as the understanding that hard work, strategic and targeted effort, and tenacious engagement can improve outcomes.  As a teacher, I found it easy to create a culture of growth mindset in my classroom. It began at the classroom door with a sign that stated: “Are you ready to be tenaciously engaged?”  Students set goals individually and as a group; they declared their goals publically so that classmates could help them discover strategies for success; and we measured and celebrated the successes or created new strategies to meet the goals yet to be achieved. I had little difficulty applying the understanding that all students could develop the skills and dispositions to become better at whatever they were trying to achieve no matter where they began, whether it was writing a persuasive essay for a new recess schedule, memorizing math facts or researching who really discovered America.

    Fast forward a few decades and the teacher is now the student. I’d always been a fairly good student, especially in graduate school where I finally found my passion in teaching. But as I continued my education, the learning became more and more challenging for me. Over the  past year, I have been taking courses full time with a focus on research. This is an area I had limited experience in. Research writing is a genre unto itself. My first submission received a score of “Developing.” My first thought was that I had received what would be equivalent to a D.  I was not used to this. I moped, I blamed and I even shed a few tears. Certainly not a growth mindset or one focused on strategic continuous improvement.

    Despite the tears, I remembered what I taught my students so many years ago: In this class we work hard to get smart. So what was different in my case? The growth mindset I had for my students and cultivated in them was not as easy for me to cultivate in myself. Why is it different for the teacher than the student? I spent a week reflecting on my reaction and realized that the gift I so easily gave to my students was one I was struggling to give to myself.

    I took all that I knew and developed a plan for success by creating strategies to meet my goal, mobilizing my effort, focusing on feedback, seeking out and willingly accepting coaching, and believing that hard work would get me to where I needed to be.

    Well, I haven’t met my research writing target yet, but I am improving with each attempt. I am truly living what I expected from my students: I am working hard to get smart at research writing. I’m not there yet, but I have no doubt that I will be in the near future.

    Commentary by Nan Parsons

    Nan Parsons, MEd, CAGS, and doctoral candidate, is UVEI’s Associate Director for School Leadership and a member of our faculty.


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  • Get That Job!

    Earlier this month a panel of eleven experienced principals gathered at UVEI to answer questions aspiring teachers had about some potentially scary topics.

    No, we're not talking about the challenges of classroom management, curriculum or state mandated tests. The frightening topic was finding a job: the application package, interview and hiring process.

    Although a lot of advice was specific to education, quite a few helpful nuggets provided good advice for almost anyone seeking a job.

    Be Yourself

    Jeff Valence, principal at Lyme Elementary School, had one of the most memorable pieces of advice, which might sound trite if the implication were not so important: be yourself. Finding the right workplace is akin to finding a spouse, said Valence. You want the relationship to be lasting. If you present yourself as someone you're not during the interview and you secure the job, it may not be a happy partnership.

    Create a Digital Portfolio

    Most principals on the panel said that they’d prefer a digital portfolio. Those of us old enough to remember teaching before the digital age will recall that portfolios were often presented during the interview in binder form. Last week’s panel of administrators largely endorsed a digital version. Several noted that the portfolio is a chance to illustrate a candidate’s tech savvy. Try creating a Google site to display work. Keri Gelenian, Rivendell’s principal, said,  “If you do bring a physical portfolio, make sure you have a copy to leave with the committee.”

    Stellar Reference Letters

    Reference letters should not be generic. A generic-sounding letter is code, suggesting that the applicant is not a great candidate, even though the letter will not necessarily state this explicitly.

    Grammar Matters

    Does your cover letter or resume contain grammatical errors or silly typos? Prepare to be relegated to the bottom of the pile. Or even worse, to the recycleing bin. In short: enlist a trusted editor or risk rejection without consideration of substance.

    Even though it’s only the end of January, jobs are popping up on School Spring. The Newton School in South Strafford is advertising a music teacher position, Hanover High School needs a photography teacher starting in April, and Woodstock Elementary is looking for math teachers.

    Have you updated your resume lately?

    Commentary by Kristen Downey

    Kristen Downey is UVEI’s Associate Director for Teacher Education.  Her other blogs can be found at and

    You can follow Kristen on Twitter @UVEIconnect


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  • Holiday Reading List

    Looking for impactful holiday reading, or for gift ideas for your favorite educator?  We asked our faculty for titles that they would recommend to aspiring and/or practicing educators in our programs. Here's what they came up with.

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  • How Coaching Helps Teachers Grow

    On Wednesday evening, November 16, twenty five people gathered at UVEI to talk about instructional coaching as a tool for supporting teachers’ continuous improvement. In attendance were school leaders interested in finding new ways to support teachers’ growth. There were teacher leaders who wanted to learn new and better ways to support their colleagues. There were teachers trying to find new resources in their quest to keep getting better. And there were community members who wanted to hear more about UVEI’s work.

    This is a topic that the faculty at UVEI has been focusing on for some time. Persuaded by research suggesting that instructional coaching is a good way to address many of the limitations of traditional professional development in schools, the UVEI team spent a year engaging in a design study to try to improve our model for instructional coaching. While coaching was already a strength at UVEI, we wanted to build our skills further. We hoped that a refined model for effective coaching could be the foundation for better training and support.

    We learned a lot over the course of the year. The coaching model that emerged (proudly built on the shoulders of giants in the field) emphasizes:

    • Creating a feedback loop, in which the learner sees their own practice and desired practice clearly, learns productive ways to move forward, and takes action.

    • Structuring conferences intentionally to move practice and support productive action.

    • Shifting stances flexibly between instructive, collaborative, and facilitative approaches based on the learner’s needs.

    • Encouraging the learner to become reflective, analytical and metacognitive about their own practice.

    • Fostering equity by bringing attention to the range of student needs.

    • Using a repertoire of coaching language and questioning strategies to foster the above.

    We shared some of our areas of greatest learning, including our new-found awareness of the importance of emphasizing the teacher/learner thinking, goals and commitments over coach-driven suggestions and analysis. We also shared our renewed commitment to coaching for equity, an area that we felt we did not satisfactorily address through our study.

    The evening closed with a lively conversation during which participants discussed their plans for advancing their own coaching skills and for distributing instructional leadership in their schools. As for UVEI, our mission is to build the capacity of schools by helping them to support continuous teacher development. With this goal in mind, we plan to further develop coaches through practice embedded, collegial, and competency-based learning opportunities. We also plan to host (free) forums for those working as mentors and coaches where participants will have opportunities to talk with colleagues and work through dilemmas. If you are interested in learning more, improving your coaching or joining in, please be in touch with us!

    Commentary by Page Tompkins 

    Page Tompkins is UVEI's Excecutive Director and a member of the Program Faculty.


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  • Inspired Teaching: Five Reasons We Belong in the Classroom

    In case you haven’t heard, teaching is INSPIRING, despite what national headlines about education might have you believe. There aren’t too many jobs out there that allow you to do intellectually stimulating work, impact young people (sometimes in life-changing ways) and make a decent living. If you need more convincing, here are five reasons why teaching is inspiring:


    1. It's cliché, but you really do make a difference

    You won’t feel it at the end of every day, and you may not even feel it at the end of every week, but ask any working teacher, and they’ll tell you that, yeah, teachers do make a difference in kids’ lives. No, you won’t stand on a desk, recite poetry, and voila! Your students love poetry! Teachers have more influence than just academic enrichment. You will know, in subtle ways, that you’ve had an impact. You’ll know because some kids linger in your room just a little longer than other students to chat with you at your desk. You’ll know because your room is the de facto lunchroom. You’ll know because they ask for hugs every morning upon arrival. You’ll know because when they write something really cool, they smile while reading your comments. And you’ll know because, occasionally, they’ll tell you so.

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  • Keys to Classroom Management

    New and seasoned teachers think a lot about classroom management. In order for students to be able to engage deeply with the curriculum, the classroom environment must be orderly; the atmosphere must feel business-like and productive, without being authoritarian. In a productive classroom, standards of conduct are clear to students; they know what they are permitted to do and what they can expect of their classmates. Even when their behavior is being corrected, students feel respected; their dignity is not undermined. Skilled teachers regard positive student behavior not as an end in itself, but as a prerequisite to high levels of engagement in content.

    The first step towards creating a classroom environment as described above, is to develop meaningful relationships with students. While this may seem obvious, teachers can forget the importance and power of good relationships when faced with challenging behavior.

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  • Learning by Doing

    When we ask participants why they choose UVEI, the top answer, consistently, is that they are attracted to “learning by doing.” Experiential learning has been at the heart of UVEI programs since our founding in 1969, and full immersion in practice, working together with colleagues and coaches, remains the core of our approach. As Laurie Greenberg, Assistant Principal at Mt. Abraham Union Middle/High School in Vermont and a graduate of the Principal Intern Program, put it, “You are expected to do the real work...” In other words, this is not a drill.

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  • Meagan Leddy and Ted Pogacar

    Learning From My Intern: A Mentor's Story

    When Meagan Leddy arrived at Oxbow High School in August, I was beginning my twenty-sixth year teaching English and had agreed to be her mentor teacher.  To appreciate this story, you’ve got to picture Meagan.  She is a diminutive Dartmouth grad with a sweet voice and a smiling face.   Her glasses are bigger than her head. She dresses unlike any millennial I had ever encountered.  Let's call her style "throwback schoolmarm cool." 

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  • Meagan Leddy and Ted Pogacar

    Learning From My Intern: A Mentor's Story Revisited

    When Meagan Leddy arrived at Oxbow High School in August, I was beginning my twenty-sixth year teaching English and had agreed to be her mentor teacher.  To appreciate this story, you’ve got to picture Meagan.  She is a diminutive Dartmouth grad with a sweet voice and a smiling face.   Her glasses are bigger than her head. She dresses unlike any millennial I had ever encountered.  Let's call her style "throwback schoolmarm cool." 

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  • Learning from the Finland Experience: Part I

    When I served as a high school principal, I was frequently asked by faculty members why standardized testing was necessary for our students when students in Finland did not participate in the same kind and frequency of testing and ranked among the highest in international standings. The question seems simple on the surface, but is actually quite complex.

    To build a context for thinking about the question of standardized testing differences in Finland and in the United States, I began with a review the evolution of Finland’s current educational system. It is clear that Finland’s educational journey has been a complicated process characterized by deliberate practice that continues today:  development of a problem of practice, research review, implementation of an intervention, review of the data, reflection, and adjust intervention(s). Repeat, repeat and repeat again for decades.

    Here is a brief historical view timeline of Finland’s process toward continuous improvement through educational reform:

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