Commentary published in the Valley News on April 26, 2016:  With the passing of the new Every Student Succeeds Act, there has been much discussion about the end of the No Child Left Behind era and the shifting of policy prerogatives back towards state and local decision makers. This gives us the opportunity to ask ourselves a fundamental question anew: What might lead to the schools we hope for and want? In many ways, traditional arguments about the right state or national policy levers for improving schools fail to answer this question satisfactorily. State-driven accountability and top-down mandates have not (and are not likely to) lead to better schools for kids. In fact, a growing body of evidence indicates that while policies may aid or hinder improvement efforts, they are not the main event at all.

It turns out that in the complex world of teaching and learning, school improvement is the result of building the capacity, skills, and judgement of teachers through ongoing and deliberate practice at the school level (to many of us working in schools, this is not exactly a shock). Improvement efforts that start with and are steered by the people in the building simultaneously respect the professionalism of teachers, and depend on it. Teachers, and particularly teacher leaders, are the key to success.

One form of teacher leadership that is particularly promising is coaching. Many people think of coaching in terms of sports, and intuitively understand coaches importance for improvement. Outside of the realm of sports, coaching is usually understood as job-embedded support that aids in deliberate practice; providing suggestions and feedback for improvement. Drawing on his experience in the medical field, author and surgeon Atul Gawande has persuasively argued that “coaching done well may be the most effective intervention designed for human performance.” Many local educators agree, and apply this idea to teaching. Jeff Moreno, principal at Hartland Elementary School, views teacher leadership generally, and coaching specifically, as an important strategy for achieving his school’s goals. Following an extensive period of planning based on careful analysis of school data, Hartland Elementary has developed focused goals in the areas of math, literacy and positive student behavior. Jeff indicated that “creating the position and identifying coaches is a critical strategy for all three goals. Coaches are key to fostering the discussion of ‘how can I get better’ or ‘how can I reach more kids?’” Jeff went on to say that having coaches drawn from the ranks of the effective and respected teachers at his school “provides a safe framework for these important reflective conversations to happen.” Carefully selected coaches, particularly coaches who continue to teach, are able to “use what they are learning in their own classes, and that can serve as a lab setting” for testing new approaches and providing examples for other teachers to study. Coaches’ grounding in the real, local work and culture of the school also, as Jeff put it, “provides credibility for the teacher with whom the coach is working.”

The good news is that many of our schools are already full of coaches or potential coaches (sometimes with that title, and other times in the form of mentors, department chairs, professional development coordinators, grade level leads, subject matter experts, and more). The challenge is that many people in coaching roles have little training or support. Being an effective teacher does not guarantee that someone will be an effective coach. To be good, coaches must match their knowledge of classroom teaching and subject matter with the skills required to be an adult educator. The Hartland effort, in Jeff’s view, requires at least a five year commitment, in part because “coaches need to develop into their role over time.”  Becky Wipfler, a reading specialist and literacy coordinator at Hanover’s Richmond Middle School, whose role includes literacy coaching, echoed this sentiment. “Coaching teachers is a complex undertaking which I hesitated to jump into until I more fully understood the many facets of coaching.” Skills like carefully observing instruction, questioning and listening techniques, and relationship building are particularly important. Coaches need to learn these skills through training, practice, and feedback. In other words, coaches need coaching. Specialized training  in these areas, including opportunities to practice and get feedback, helped Becky feel more comfortable working with colleagues to improve their teaching practice.

Identifying and developing teacher leaders as coaches is a good investment, positively impacting teachers and their students. Amy Arnold, a second year teacher at Bradford Elementary School who received coaching as part of a district wide literacy initiative, said, “When you first start teaching, it's kind of like feeling your way through a darkened hallway. You bump into things, and you are never quite sure you're actually going in the right direction. Having a coach is like having a flashlight. Coaches come into your room and observe and model, reaffirming or correcting your teaching strategies. Not only does it benefit student learning by making you a more effective educator, it helps you feel more confident in what you are doing. I also think it is great for students to see that teachers are always learning, too. When your coach comes into the room, you take on a dual role: teacher and student- and the kids are fascinated by that. It really sends a message of lifelong learning.”

The solution to developing our schools lies in investing in the people on whom effective schooling depends. Policy should be directed at supporting and developing teachers as learners and leaders at the local level.

By R Page Tompkins, EdD

Page is UVEI's Executive Director.  For more information about Page, see:

On March 22, in lieu of our usual Tuesday seminar, seven interns with an endorsement in elementary education participated in a professional development day at Woodstock Elementary School (WES). The purpose of the visit was to observe, critique and understand the many components of a balanced literacy program. Aimee Toth, UVEI’s Associate Director of Elementary Education, was our guide.

Aimee, who has also been leading professional education workshops for WES teachers, began with an overview of what we should expect from the day’s experience, and we reviewed the 5Ws (who?, what?, where?, when?, why?) that pertain to a balanced literacy program.  From there, our day of observation began. We watched a third grade literacy circle, guided reading in kindergarten, a small group book walk back in kindergarten, and a second grade read aloud and book shopping (students go to book buckets or book shelves and select five books (at their appropriate reading level) to read the following week.  We also watched expert teachers take running records to assess the reading levels of their students. It was especially nice to visit the classroom of a UVEI alumnus who is now teaching at WES

Read more ...


Aimee Toth to be the Principal

of Roxbury Village School in Vermont

After three years as the Associate Director for Elementary Education at UVEI, Aimee Toth is moving on to the principalship of Roxbury Village School in Roxbury, Vermont. While at UVEI, Aimee made tremendous contributions to the Teacher Intern Program, enhancing our approach to coaching elementary interns, incorporated teaching of best practices into our seminars, and improving the quality and rigor of our assessments of competency. Aimee also led the effort to expand UVEI’s partnership work in districts, directly contributing to practice-embedded professional development for over 300 teachers across six school districts.

The mission of UVEI is to prepare and inspire educators to impact learners, classrooms, schools and communities. Our faculty continuing this work in different roles is an important way that UVEI contributes to the community of educators.

In talking about her vision for leadership at her new school, Aimee is not going in with preconceived ideas of what needs to change. Instead, she said, “I want to work collaboratively with all members of the school community to find ways to make school more engaging, relevant, and effective for students.” As a teacher educator, it is no surprise that Aimee knows the teachers are critical to this. Her goal is to “support teachers in creating a vision for collective and individual growth within their school” both for students and for teachers.

Aimee will be taking the rich experiences she has had at UVEI with her. “One of the most amazing things about my time at UVEI is that I got to be a fly on the wall in dozens of schools throughout the state over the last three years.  I’m here to report that there are wonderful things happening in education through the passionate dedication of educators in all corners of Vermont.  I have treasured the moments of deep collaboration with educators from novice to experienced as they work to support students.  There is much to be proud of in the way that Vermont’s schools are innovating!”

Aimee’s relationship with UVEI is not over. “Some of the smartest, most experienced, and most caring people I know in education work at UVEI.  I will certainly be enlisting them as an educational brain trust and hope to continue to partner with them in the many ways they offer.” If you have been one of Aimee’s students, you should do the same to her! At UVEI, we believe that our coaching relationships with our candidates and participants are never over. If you want Aimee’s advice, support, or partnership, she will still be reachable at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Thank you, Aimee, for all that you have contributed! We are so proud that you will be continuing our shared work of growing teachers and engaging kids. The teachers, students and community of Roxbury are lucky to have you!

Page Tompkins, Executive Director
Upper Valley Educators Institute